Serim, Barış & Jacucci, G. (2016). Pointing while looking elsewhere: designing for varying degrees of visual guidance during manual input. InProc. CHI’16. ACM.
We propose using eye tracking to support interface use with decreased reliance on visual guidance. While the design of most graphical user interfaces take visual guidance during manual input for granted, eye tracking allows distinguishing between the cases when the manual input is conducted with or without guidance. We conceptualize the latter cases as input with uncertainty that require separate handling. We describe the design space of input handling by utilizing input resources available to the system, possible actions the system can realize and various feedback techniques for informing the user. We demonstrate the particular action mechanisms and feedback techniques through three applications we developed for touch interaction on a large screen. We conducted a two stage study of positional accuracy during target acquisition with varying visual guidance, to determine the selection range around a touch point due to positional uncertainty. We also conducted a qualitative evaluation of example applications with participants to identify perceived utility and hand eye coordination challenges while using interfaces with decreased visual guidance.